Is indian east asian or south asia – is indian east asian or south asia
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Ashok Kumar Behuria replies : There is an overlap between the two. However, they are different. Indian subcontinent is a subset of South Asia, as much as in charlotte nc 2021 what to do in december are subsets of the Asian is indian east asian or south asia – is indian east asian or south asia.
As a geographical expression, Indian subcontinent encompassed the British colonial administrative unit called India, which comprised of the present day states of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. TillBurma now Myanmar was also part of British India, but was not considered part of the subcontinent.
South Asia signifies the region extending from Afghanistan in the north-west till Bangladesh in the east, and from Nepal in the north to Sri Lanka in the south.
The region is well represented in the geographical extents of the regional organisation named as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC which was established in It gained currency subsequently and was adopted by the Western countries including the United States, which has a separate bureau in its state department looking at south and central Asia.
The term South Asia gained further legitimacy as countries in the southern Asian region too began to widely use it. Skip to main content. You are here Home » Ask an Expert. Is it one and the same? Posted on September 25, Indian Pugwash Society.
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Imagining India in Southeast Asia is often guided and influenced by a number of factors. It may depend on how the contemporary global and the regional media views and portrays the Indian sub-continent through various news on religious dissensions, political rivalries, border disputes, terrorist attacks, and many other aspects that usually govern the ratings of the highly competitive and numerous television channels.
The perceptions of India may also be formed by a substantial Indian diaspora in different parts of Southeast Asia who may have migrated to the region in different periods of history under different compulsions or opportunities. These migrants have kept alive their ethnic identity through marrying each other, and nostalgic homeland memories handed over to succeeding generations. In Southeast Asia, the numerical strength of the Chinese diaspora is much stronger than the Indian diaspora making the cultural familiarity with China much more aligned to the growing assertiveness of China in the south China sea and East Asia.
Geographically, the largely archipelagic southeast Asia has been a meeting ground of both Indian and Chinese cultures for well over a 1, years and has blended with unique indigenous features that characterize most of the southeast Asian states. Thus, many Southeast Asians view India with mixed feelings; both with a sense of a deep-rooted cultural connections, but also with a lack of understanding of India and Indians beyond what the media makes superficially visible.
This makes teaching and learning about India both interesting as well as challenging in many ways. India shares a unique connection with southeast Asia that has been shaped and reshaped by numerous historical developments. Indonesia, for example, has emerged as the country with the largest Muslim population in the world yet, Garuda, the legendary bird in Hindu and Buddhist mythological traditions, is the national emblem of the country.
The Garuda makes its pervasive presence felt in Thailand as well, a predominantly Buddhist country, where it is more mythically represented with a human torso and red feathers.
These kind of cultural representations and connections continue in the suvarnabhumi airport at Bangkok, capital of Thailand, where the international travelers are greeted with an impressive mythical exhibit of the Samudra manthan churning of the ocean that is directly influenced by Hindu mythological beliefs. The localization of Indian influences can also be seen in the various adaptations of the Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata in temple performances, enactments in theater shows or in wayang puppetry culture.
Trade prevailed between Tamil merchants in the eastern peninsular Indian sub-continent with the Thai port of Takua Pa and north Sumatra during the Mughal period CE onwards. Jayavarman ii, who was regarded as the incarnation of Lord Shiva from the Hindu cult, then founded the angkor empire. Closer to the bay of Bengal, the Pyu people in lower Burma were hindu-buddhist and fifth century Ce collections of Pyu inscriptions with sanskrit vocabulary indicate contacts with Bengal and Assam in modern India into Burma now Myanmar.
Intellectual historian and Sanskrit scholar Sheldon Pollock describes this phenomena a creation of a sanskrit cosmopolis for much of the first millennium CE. In Indonesia, the oldest forms of writing are Sanskrit language inscriptions on stone pillars in eastern Borneo that date back to Ce. Buddhist monks and brahmins took positions as scribes, record keepers, or spiritual guides. From the thirteenth century onwards, they began assuming the title of sultan and sponsored the religion of Islam and Islamic institutions.
Southeast Asian rulers were now drawn into the Islamic merchant networks and channeled their revenues in promoting and supporting the spread of Islam. The hindu-buddhist influence was predominant throughout the srivijayan kingdom, based in Palembang, Sumatra, encompassing other parts of southeast asia and lasting until approximately the twelfth century.
The Chinese pilgrims and monks who traveled between India and China through maritime routes, have left indelible accounts of their voyages that are important sources of information on buddhist doctrines, rituals, commercial exchanges, travel routes, and intercultural perceptions throughout south and southeast asia.
The Chinese pilgrim, Yijing travelled in the second half of the seventh century Ce from Canton to Palembang in south Sumatra, before sailing up to Kedah in the Malay Peninsula. This was a major route of the sailing winds that travelers followed. The shailendras were another powerful Buddhist dynasty originating in east Java who, along with the srivijayan kingdom, flourished until the emergence and eventual dominance of the Majapahit empire in the fourteenth century CE.
Kedah, now in modern Malaysia, also came under the Chola rule in approximately , along with what is now Pattani in Thailand. The Chola influence in the region was was substantial and is discussed in the important medieval Malayan chronicle Sejarah Melayu.
Yet, popular art forms like wayang shadow plays, inspired by Hinduism and based upon Hindu-Java epics, remained and attracted wealthy patrons of different Islamic sects. The religious impact on southeast Asia from the Indian subcontinent is distinctly visible and has been indigenized with various manifestations of diverse rituals, practices and beliefs. Hinduism and Buddhism spread from India and mostly existed with mutual appreciation until many of the mainland states embraced Buddhism.
Though Islam started flowing into the region through itinerant merchants and preachers, it was not until the fourteenth century CE that an Islamic state was established in Sumatra. Most of the participants in the Muslim trade network were transient and localized in port cities.
Fusion of the agrarian and the maritime economies for the most part did not occur, so pre-Islamic cultural foundations remained in practice in the country-sides. Foreigners settled in towns and cities with incentives for positions in courts or marriage to local women. The everyday rituals have also incorporated certain practices from Islamic tradition. Textiles formed a strong connection between India and southeast Asia. Though Indonesia had an age-old tradition of local weaving for more than 4, years, Indian textiles were highly acclaimed and continued to be imported through different periods in history, not only as clothing or gifts and rituals in various ceremonies, but also as textiles used to decorate images in temples and ceilings, or in manuscript covers.
The popular textile imports from india comprised of the double-ikat silk patola, a unique pattern of woven fabric and block-printed cotton textiles. There are numerous archeological evidences of these exchanges through different periods of history, ranging from the ninth to tenth century Java inscriptions, to excavations at burial sites at ban do Ta Phet in Thailand and Pontanoa bangka in sulawesi-one of the main islands in the Indonesian archipelago circa CE, or architectural influences found in eleventh and twelfth century Pagan temples in Myanmar.
There were other groups of textile traders who settled in the Malay Peninsula and north Sumatra Indonesia from Gujarat in western India. The period of colonial expansion approximately sixteenth to twentieth centuries in most of south and Southeast Asia created major disruptions in age-old connectivities. Colonization ushered in new political structures that were hegemonic and discriminatory to indigenous populations.
Colonial rule also facilitated and strategized large movement of peoples across the bay of Bengal. Particularly from the s and s, there was an increasing sense of intellectual connections throughout Asia arousing anti-colonial feelings and nationalist sentiments, and an awareness of mostly peaceful and rich historical exchanges. Mehta, and Periyar e. Ramasamy commonly known as Periyar. Subhas Chandra Bose, the Indian freedom fighter, established his base in Singapore and proclaimed the azad hind Government free government of India under his leadership in Bose established the Indian national army and the first all women army, the Rani of Jhansi regiment, the only one ever established for the Indian Anti-British struggle.
One of the most important representatives of the intellectual circulation of ideas was the Indian poet, novelist, philosopher, lyricist, musician and the first Asian nobel Laureate, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. Tan Yun shan, the Chinese teacher and scholar, who met Tagore in Singapore in , later established the school of Chinese studies Cheena Bhavana at shantiniketan.
Burmese monk and independence leader U Ottama, educated in Calcutta for three years, became involved in both the revival of Buddhism and organizing the nationalist independence movement, in what is today Myanmar. Several institutions were established in India that facilitated educational reforms, and the revival of Buddhism, as well as ancient Indian links with the east.
Later, it was further consolidated in a more transnational Buddhist identity by dharmapala, whose Maha bodhi society was established in Madras, Rangoon Yangon , and Calcutta, among other places. Channels of interaction had opened in the twentieth century across the seas of the bay of Bengal that were motivated by educational exchanges, religious revivals, cultural familiarities, political ideologies, and social reform movements. Yet, historically, rich exchanges have often been overwhelmed by colonial narratives framed with political and economic agendas, nationalist movements, and anti-British struggles.
The rise of nationalism, while it highlighted and enthused anti-colonial protests in different forms and shapes, also led to constraining identities of people within territorial limits, community, language, or religious affiliations.
Though the end of colonialism in the years following World War II presented numerous possibilities, most of the newly independent nation-states were strongly driven by ideas of self-determination, insular solidarity, and fervent nationalism, causing them to focus upon reconstructing their own economies and political systems after centuries of colonial rule. Yet earlier efforts at inter-Asian connections managed to inspire some state leaders to engage with the ideas of Asian unity and fraternity.
The early efforts at post-colonial interactive dialogues deserve appreciation, but were heavily thwarted under the gathering clouds of the Cold War tensions and voluntary or highly incentivized demarcations of newly created countries under opposing Cold War blocs. Cold War geopolitics became staunchly embedded into the political, economic, cultural, and educational agenda resulting in the formation of South Asia, Southeast Asia and other regions Middle East, East Asia. The twenty-first century has witnessed a new momentum of globalization in Asia and the world.
The Indian strategic outreach efforts, on the other hand, have drawn in countries like the united states, Japan, and Australia in different alignments, thus extending the domain of mutual interests into the Indo-Pacific region. Regional cooperation has been facilitated by internal economic reforms of states and market-driven regional integration process that has resulted in expansion of output, outbound investments, free trade agreements, and mobility of professionals and entrepreneurs between India and ASEAN.
The India-China relationship remains a critical factor that is based on collaborations and shared prosperity. Foreign policy relations between India and most ASEAN states are highly positive with increasing attempts to leverage on mutual complementarities.
India is a nuclear-armed nation with a declared no first use policy , but one that also engages in strong soft-power approaches, while not neglecting alternative and counter force as a part of the Quad to apprehensive and unsure about southeast Asia since choices are not easy to make. Mani and Geoff Wade eds. Kwa Chong-Guan ed. For further references on the Chola expedition in southeast asia, see Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja ed. Sunil S. The society published the series of journals between and with a gap between and Early Southeast Asia Viewed from India.
The Look east Policy LEP was started as an active foreign policy program under Prime Minister Narasimha Rao in along with domestic economic reforms and market liberalization. Stephen R. Early Bird Prices Available until October Read More. Khon is a dance and drama performance based on the Ramayana. Centuries of Cultural and Religious Connections Angkor Wat, the largest religious monument in the world, was originally constructed as a Hindu Temple during the Khmer Empire.
Colonial Disruptions and the Post-colonial Disconnect The period of colonial expansion approximately sixteenth to twentieth centuries in most of south and Southeast Asia created major disruptions in age-old connectivities.
Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. Government of India. NOTES 1. Jean Taylor, Global Indonesia, Search for:.
Asian Americans and their origins: Key facts | Pew Research Center – Search form
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Asia. Places adjacent to South Asia. Regions of Asia. Geography of South Asia.
Thar Desert. Major languages of South Asia. Aka-Jeru Aka-Bo. Balochi Dari Pashto Wakhi. Burushaski Nihali Kusunda. Khasi Lyngngam Pnar War. This analysis and the accompanying fact sheets about the Asian population in the United States combines the latest data available from multiple data sources.
The main source used is a three-year dataset constructed from the U. The ACS is used to present demographic and economic characteristics for each group. Population estimates for all Asian groups include mixed-race and mixed-Asian group populations, regardless of Hispanic origin. As a result, there is some overlap in the numbers for the individual Asian groups because people with origins in more than one group are counted in each group to which they belong.
These groups together largely shape the demographic characteristics of the overall U. Chinese-origin Asians are the largest single Asian origin group in the U. Those with roots in Vietnam 2. Demographically, these groups often differ greatly from the largest groups. Population growth varied across Asian origin groups between and Eleven of the Asian groups more than doubled in size during this span.
Some of the smaller origin groups — such as Bhutanese , Nepalese and Burmese — experienced the fastest growth rates, with their populations growing tenfold or more between and Laotians and Japanese have had the slowest growth rates among U.
Asians since Which Asian origin group is largest varies by state. In 22 states that are largely concentrated in the Southeast and Midwest, Indian Americans are the largest Asian origin group.
Chinese are the largest group in the District of Columbia and 12 states — predominantly in the West and Northeast — while Filipinos are the largest origin group in nine states. Vietnamese Americans are the largest Asian origin group by population in four states Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Nebraska ; Hmong Americans are the largest in Minnesota and Wisconsin; and Korean Americans are the largest in Alabama. Many Indians, for example, have recently migrated to the U.
Many Chinese Americans have taken those paths, too, but the Chinese population also has a long history in Western states , arriving in California as early as the 19th century. Hmong Americans, meanwhile, entered the U. A similar spike can be seen in British English. At the time of this rise, in the U. In addition, the Immigration and Nationality Act of made way for large-scale immigration from Asia to the U.
After all, in the U. According to the Pew Research Center , the very first U. That feeling can be particularly relevant when it comes to checking a box on a form like the Census. The division of seats in Congress and state legislatures is also affected by Census data. Along with questioning the safety of offering up personal information to the government — perhaps due to the fact that the government also used Census data to round up people of Japanese descent for imprisonment in camps during World War II — language barriers, feelings of neglect and lack of familiarity with the Census all play a part in discouraging Asian Americans from participating, according to the New York Times.
As part of an effort to address the situation, volunteers from civic organizations are canvassing to educate Asian populations about the Census and appease any fears.
Dillingham wrote back, in a letter shared with TIME, saying that the Census Bureau is in fact trying to expand the campaign to include content produced in South Asian languages.