Is indian considered south east asia – is indian considered south east asia
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Maldives is an island nation in the Indian Ocean-Arabian sea area. It is the smallest Asian country in both population and area. The official and common language of the country is Dhivehi, which is an Indo-Aryan language. The script used to write Dhivehi has changed over time. The first known script as Eveyla akuru script, which is found in historical recording of kings. Then the script known as Dhives akuru was used for a long period.
The script used at present is called Thaana, which is said to be introduced during the reign of Mohamed Thakurufaanu and is written from right to left. Nepal is one of the three landlocked countries in South Asia.
The country holds diverse linguistic heritage, stemming from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolian and different indigenous language isolates. Nepali is the official national language and is spoken by almost half of the population Derived from Sanskri, Nepali is written in Devanagari script. English is used by the people in government and business. In addition, Nepal is home to at least four indigenous sign languages. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet.
Pakistan is the 36 th largest country in the world in terms of area. It is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast. English is the official language, which is primarily used in official business, government and legal contracts. The local dialect is known as Pakistani English. Sindhi and Balochi are prominent languages in Sindh and Balochistan accordingly. The country is home to many religions, ethnic groups and languages.
The official languages are Sinhalese and Tamil and English is the link language. English is widely used across the nation for education, scientific and commercial purposes. Members of the Burgher community speak different forms of Portuguese Creole and Dutch, while members of the Malay community speak a form of Creole Malay.
My Account. Site Search enter keywoards to search library web pages. Press enter to submit. Ask A Librarian. International and Area Studies Library. Return to top. Loading Library Hours By the early 21st century, Indonesia had grown to an emerging market economy, becoming the largest economy in the region.
It was classified a newly industrialised country and is the region’s singular member of the G major economies. Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 4,, square kilometres 1,, sq mi. As of , around million people live in the region, more than a fifth live million on the Indonesian island of Java , the most densely populated large island in the world.
Indonesia is the most populous country with million people, and also the fourth most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country.
The Aslians and Negritos were believed as one of the earliest inhabitants in the region. In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than million people, mostly concentrated in Java , Indonesia. The second-largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia is Vietnamese Kinh people with around 86 million population, mainly inhabiting in Vietnam, thus forming a significant minority in neighboring Cambodia and Laos.
The Thais is also a significant ethnic group with around 59 million population forming the majority in Thailand. In Burma, the Burmese account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock in this country, with the Indo-Aryan Rohingya make up a significant minority in Rakhine State. Indonesia is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, with hundreds of ethnic minorities inhabited the archipelago, including Madurese , Minangkabau , Bugis , Balinese , Dayak , Batak and Malays.
While Malaysia is split between more than half Malays and one-quarter Chinese, and also Indian minority in the West Malaysia however Dayaks make up the majority in Sarawak and Kadazan-dusun makes up the majority in Sabah which are in the East Malaysia. In city-state Singapore, Chinese are the majority, yet the city is a multicultural melting pot with citizens of Malay, Indian, Eurasian and other ethnic descents. While the Khmers are the majority in Cambodia and form a significant minority in Southern Vietnam and Thailand, the Hmong people are the minority in Vietnam, China, and Laos.
Religion in Southeast Asia . Countries in Southeast Asia practice many different religions. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority country in the world. There are approximately million Buddhists in Southeast Asia, making it the second-largest religion in the region, after Islam. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. In October , the number of Christians, both Catholic and Protestant in Southeast Asia, reached million, of which 97 million came from the Philippines , 29 million came from Indonesia , 11 million came from Vietnam , and the rest came from Malaysia , Myanmar , East Timor , Singapore , Laos , Cambodia and Brunei.
No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world. Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea , Flores and Timor.
Garuda , the phoenix who is the mount vahanam of Vishnu , is a national symbol in both Thailand and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda have been found on Palawan ; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it.
Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia’s largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia, Highland Philippines, and Papua in eastern Indonesia.
In Burma, Sakka Indra is revered as a Nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Each of the languages has been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade, immigration, and historical colonization as well. There are nearly native languages in the region. The language composition for each country is as follows with official languages in bold :. Indonesia has over languages in over 17, islands across the archipelago, making Indonesia the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet,  slightly behind Papua New Guinea.
The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia , widely used in educational, political, economic, and other formal situations.
In daily activities and informal situations, most Indonesians speak in their local language s. For more details, see: Languages of Indonesia. Also Brunei shows a strong influence from Arabia. Vietnam and Singapore show more Chinese influence  in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam was in China’s sphere of influence for much of its history.
Indian influence in Singapore is only evident through the Tamil migrants,  which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam’s history, it has had no direct influence from India — only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples. Moreover, Vietnam is also categorized under the East Asian cultural sphere along with China, Korea, and Japan due to a large amount of Chinese influence embedded in their culture and lifestyle.
Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for millennia, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive.
The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This includes weaponry, such as the distinctive kris , and musical instruments, such as the gamelan. The region’s chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam , India , and China. Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era.
As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks ; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.
The arts of Southeast Asia have an affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance’s emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience. Most of Southeast Asia introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early seventh century before the Khmer Empire , which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism.
Apsara Dance , famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being Wayang from Indonesia.
The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia are quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago. Indonesia, despite conversion to Islam which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art, and literature. It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind, the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine.
The Tai , coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware. Traditional music in Southeast Asia is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions.
Main styles of traditional music can be seen: Court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region.
Of the court and folk genres, Gong chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam. String instruments also are popular in the region. On 18 November , UNESCO officially recognized angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity , and encourage the Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.
The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region. Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called lontar see image to the left — magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side.
The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections.
The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas , until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia. The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised e.
The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam and more recently, Singapore and Malaysia. Association football is the most popular sport in the region, with the ASEAN Football Federation , the region’s primary regulatory body, formed on 31 January , in Jakarta , Indonesia.
AFF Championship is the highest football competition in the region since its inaugural in with Thailand becoming the most title in the competition with 5 titles. The reigning winner is Thailand , who defeated Indonesia in the final. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. South-eastern region of Asia. Official languages. Other languages.
Mon Nicobarese Aslian. Tamil Telugu Malayalam. Aka-Jeru Present Great Andamanese. Onge Jarawa Sentinelese? Thai Lao Shan. Capital cities. Largest cities. Central Asia. Eastern Asia. Northern Asia. South-eastern Asia. Southern Asia. Western Asia. South China Sea. Camotes Sea. Philippine Sea Pacific Ocean. Sibuyan Sea. Visayan Sea. Bismarck Sea. Gulf of Thailand.
Gulf of Tonkin. Bay of Bengal. Indian Ocean. Strait of Malacca. Makassar Strait. Gulf of Carpentaria. Karimata Strait. Luzon Strait. Gulf of Tomini. Sunda Strait. Madura Strait. Main article: History of Southeast Asia. See also: European colonisation of Southeast Asia. See also: American Philippines. Further information: Boundaries between the continents of Earth.
See also: Southeast Asian coral reefs and Wallace Line. Rank Name Country Pop. Main article: Ethnic groups of Southeast Asia.
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Before the Census, a Question—Who Counts as Asian American? | Time – Central Asia (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan)
Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives as the constituent. Southeast Asia is composed of eleven countries of impressive diversity in religion, culture and history: Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Timor-Leste.
South Asia – Wikipedia.
India is the largest country of South Asia and the seventh-largest country in the world by area. Because of the vastness of the country and variety of culture within different states, there is no national language in India. However, Hindi is the official language of the government and is spoken by the majority of people.
English also has the status of official language in the country and is used extensively in higher education, business and education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages. In addition, Tamil, Sanskrit, Telegu, Kannada, Malayalam and Oriya were awarded the distinction of classical language.
Maldives is an island nation in the Indian Ocean-Arabian sea area. It is the smallest Asian country in both population and area. The official and common language of the country is Dhivehi, which is an Indo-Aryan language. The script used to write Dhivehi has changed over time. The first known script as Eveyla akuru script, which is found in historical recording of kings.
Then the script known as Dhives akuru was used for a long period. South Asia depends critically on monsoon rainfall. The warmest period of the year precedes the monsoon season March to mid June. In the summer the low pressures are centered over the Indus-Gangetic Plain and high wind from the Indian Ocean blows towards the center.
The monsoons are the second coolest season of the year because of high humidity and cloud covering. The change is violent. Moderately vigorous monsoon depressions form in the Bay of Bengal and make landfall from June to September. Climate change in South Asia is causing a range of challenges including sea level rise , cyclonic activity, and changes in ambient temperature and precipitation patterns.
This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states including uninhabited territories , but does not include claims on Antarctica. The population of South Asia is about 1.
There are numerous languages in South Asia. The spoken languages of the region are largely based on geography and shared across religious boundaries, but the written script is sharply divided by religious boundaries. Till , Muslim-majority Bangladesh then known as East Pakistan also mandated only the Nastaliq script, but after that adopted regional scripts and particularly Bengali, after the Language Movement for the adoption of Bengali as the official language of the then East Pakistan.
Non-Muslims of South Asia, and some Muslims in India, on the other hand, use scripts such as those derived from Brahmi script for Indo-European languages and non-Brahmi scripts for Dravidian languages and others. The Nagari script has been the primus inter pares of the traditional South Asian scripts.
The spoken language is similar, but it is written in three scripts. The Gurmukhi and Nagari scripts are distinct but close in their structure, but the Persian Nastaliq script is very different. English, with British spelling, is commonly used in urban areas and is a major economic lingua franca of South Asia.
In , South Asia had the world’s largest population of Hindus ,  about million Muslims ,  over 27 million Sikhs, 35 million Christians and over 25 million Buddhists. Indian religions are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism and Sikhism. Later Sindh , Balochistan , and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia, which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia.
South Asia is home to some of the most populated urban areas in the world. According to the edition of Demographia World Urban Areas , the region contains 8 of the world’s 35 megacities urban areas over 10 million population : .
It is the fastest-growing major economy in the world and one of the world’s fastest registering a growth of 7. It has the fastest GDP growth rate in Asia. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is also listed among the Next Eleven countries. It is also one of the fastest-growing middle-income countries. According to a World Bank report in , driven by a strong expansion in India, coupled with favorable oil prices, from the last quarter of South Asia became the fastest-growing region in the world .
Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line, with 2. India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between and , with around million being raised from the poverty line.
As of , One of the key challenges in assessing the quality of education in South Asia is the vast range of contextual difference across the region, complicating any attempt to compare between countries. Only sub-Saharan Africa had a higher rate of children not learning. Two-thirds of these children were in school, sitting in classrooms. Only 19 percent of children attending primary and lower secondary schools attaining a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathematics.
In South Asia, classrooms are teacher-centred and rote-based, while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination. While by India and Pakistan has two of the most developed and increasingly decentralised education systems, Bangladesh still had a highly centralised system, and Nepal is in a state of transition from a centralized to a decentralized system. But parents are still faced with unmanageable secondary financial demands, including private tuition to make up for the inadequacies of the education system.
The larger and poorer countries in the region, like India and Bangladesh, struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations, with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out-of-school children enrolled into schools.
Children’s education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human-made crises including natural hazards, political instability, rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services. The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale. According to UNICEF, girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region,  while UNESCO estimated in that 24 million girls of primary-school age in the region were not receiving any formal education.
With about 21 million students in universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in , accounting for 86 percent of all higher-level students in South Asia. Bangladesh two million and Pakistan 1. In Nepal thousand and Sri Lanka thousand the numbers were much smaller. Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about students in higher education in The gross enrolment ratio in ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India, much below the global average of 31 percent.
Their attacks on immunization teams have claimed 78 lives since December The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition. The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world and is nearly double that of Sub Saharan Africa with dire consequences for mobility, mortality, productivity, and economic growth.
In , approximately million people in the region were malnourished. In India, the malnourished comprise just over 15 percent of the population. While the number of malnourished people in the neighborhood has shown a decline over the last 25 years, the number of under-nourished in Pakistan displays an upward trend. There were Approximately The report stated, “the low status of women in South Asian countries and their lack of nutritional knowledge are important determinants of high prevalence of underweight children in the region”.
Corruption and the lack of initiative on the part of the government has been one of the major problems associated with nutrition in India.
Illiteracy in villages has been found to be one of the major issues that need more government attention. The report mentioned that although there has been a reduction in malnutrition due to the Green Revolution in South Asia, there is concern that South Asia has “inadequate feeding and caring practices for young children”.
National Assembly. House of Representatives. India is a secular federative parliamentary republic with the prime minister as head of government. With most populous functional democracy in world  and world’s longest written constitution,    India has been stably sustaining the political system it adopted in with no regime change except that by a democratic election.
India’s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world’s newer establishments. Since the formation of its republic abolishing British law , it has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. It has a multi-party system in its internal regional politics  whereas alternative transfer of powers to alliances of Indian left-wing and right-wing political parties in national government provide it with characteristics of a two-party state.
Foundation of Pakistan lies in Pakistan movement started in colonial India based on Islamic nationalism. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary Islamic republic and was the world’s first country to adopt Islamic republic system to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in Pakistan’s governance is one of the most conflicted in the world.
The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan has become a concern for the South Asian region. Out of 22 appointed Pakistani Prime ministers , none has been able to complete a full term in office. Pakistan’s governance is one of the most conflicted in the region. The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan have become a concern for the South Asian region.
The unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic of Sri Lanka is oldest sustained democracy in Asia. Tensions between Sinhalese and Tamils led to Sri Lankan civil war that undermined the country’s stability for more than two and a half decades. The political situation in Sri Lanka has been dominated by an increasingly assertive Sinhalese nationalism, and the emergence of a Tamil separatist movement under LTTE , which was suppressed in May Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic.
Law of Bangladesh defines it as both Islamic  as well as secular. Bangladesh is a unitary state and parliamentary democracy. Although Bangladesh’s legal code is secular, more citizens are embracing a conservative version of Islam , with some pushing for sharia law , analysts say.
Experts say that the rise in conservatism reflects the influence of foreign-financed Islamic charities and the more austere version of Islam brought home by migrant workers in Persian Gulf countries. By the 18th century, the Hindu Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. Hinduism became the state religion and Hindu laws were formulated as national policies.
A small oligarchic group of Gorkha region based Hindu Thakuri and Chhetri political families dominated the national politics, military and civic affairs until the abdication of the Rana dynasty regime and establishment of Parliamentary democratic system in , which was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in and It was the last Hindu state in world before becoming a secular democratic republic in The country’s modern development suffered due to the various significant events like the Nepalese revolution , — Nepalese Civil War , April Nepal earthquake and the Nepal blockade by India leading to the grave — Nepal humanitarian crisis.
There is also a huge turnover in the office of the Prime Minister of Nepal leading to serious concerns of political instability. The country has been ranked one of the poor countries in terms of GDP per capita but it has one of the lowest levels of hunger problem in South Asia.
Afghanistan has been a unitary theocratic Islamic emirate since Afghanistan has been suffering from one of the most unstable regimes on earth as a result of multiple foreign invasions, civil wars, revolutions and terrorist groups.
Persisting instability for decades have left the country’s economy stagnated and torn and it remains one of the most poor and least developed countries on the planet, leading to the influx of Afghan refugees to neighboring countries like Iran. Bhutan is a Buddhist state with a constitutional monarchy. The country has been ranked as the least corrupt and peaceful with most economic freedom in the region in Myanmar ‘s politics is dominated by a military Junta , which has sidelined the democratic forces led by Aung San Suu Kyi.
Maldives is a unitary presidential republic with Sunni Islam strictly as the state religion. India has been the dominant geopolitical power in the region    and alone accounts for most part of the landmass, population, economy and military expenditure in the region. Bangladesh , Pakistan and Sri Lanka are middle powers with sizeable populations and economies with significant impact on regional politics.
During the Partition of India in , subsequent violence and territorial disputes left relations between India and Pakistan sour and very hostile  and various confrontations and wars which largely shaped the politics of the region and led to the creation of Bangladesh.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in accelerated efforts to form a union to restrengthen deteriorating regional security. South Asia continues to remain least integrated region in the world. Populism is a general characteristic of internal politics of India. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 October Southern region of Asia. Official languages. Other languages.
Khasi Santali. Sri Lanka Malay. Turkmen Uzbek. Maldives Pakistan. India Sri Lanka. Bangladesh Bhutan. See also: Indology. For a topical guide, see Outline of South Asian history. I have a piece in the Washington Post that starts answering this question. The closest example we have so far is the nomination battle over Vivek Murthy also an immigrant, and an Indian American who identifies as Asian American.
In some ways, the Murthy nomination battle might have been even bigger, with the NRA opposing his nomination. Many Asian American or pan-Asian groups mobilized in support of Murthy, but it was not an election-defining nomination fight, so groups were not trying to mobilize voters and donors in the same way.
We would be in uncharted here if Srinivasan gets nominated, and we can see not only if Asian American voters and donors might get energized, but also other groups like immigrants, Latinos, African Americans, partisan Democrats, environmentalists, and so on. Mystical Islam Sufism , which aimed at direct contact with Allah with the help of a teacher using techniques such as meditation and trance, was very appealing.
The first confirmed mention of a Muslim community came from Marco Polo, the well-known traveler, who stopped in north Sumatra in Inscriptions and graves with Muslim dates have been located in others coastal areas along the trade routes. A major development was the decision of the ruler of Melaka, on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, to adopt Islam around Melaka was a key trading center, and the Malay language, spoken in the Malay Peninsula and east Sumatra, was used as a lingua franca in trading ports throughout the Malay-Indonesian archipelago.
Malay is not a difficult language to learn, and it was already understood by many people along the trade routes that linked the island world.
Muslim teachers therefore had a common language through which they could communicate new concepts through oral presentations and written texts. A modified Arabic script displaced the previous Malay script. Arabic words were incorporated into Malay, particularly in regard to spiritual beliefs, social practices, and political life.
Local heroes often became Islamic saints, and their graves were venerated places at which to worship. Some aspects of mystical Islam resembled pre-Islamic beliefs, notably on Java. Women never adopted the full face veil, and the custom of taking more than one wife was limited to wealthy elites. Law codes based on Islam usually made adjustments to fit local customs. Pork was forbidden to Muslims, a significant development in areas like eastern Indonesia and the southern Philippines where it had long been a ritual food.
A Muslim could often be recognized by a different dress style, like chest covering for women. Male circumcision became an important rite of passage. Reforming tendencies gained strength in the early nineteenth century when a group known as the Wahhabis captured Mecca. The Wahhabis demanded a stricter observance of Islamic law. Although their appeal was limited in Southeast Asia, some people were attracted to Wahhabi styles of teaching.
There was a growing feeling that greater observance of Islamic doctrine might help Muslims resist the growing power of Europeans. Muslim leaders were often prominent in anti-colonial movements, especially in Indonesia. However, the influence of modernist Islamic thinking that developed in Egypt meant educated Muslims in Southeast Asia also began to think about reforming Islam as a way of answering the Western challenge. Europeans eventually colonized all Southeast Asia except for Thailand. After these countries gained their independence following World War II, the major question for politically active Muslims has concerned the relationship between Islam and the state.
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